Connecting Sociology and YOU!

Chapter 1: Introduction – Understanding Sociology

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Notes: sociologythe scientific study of social relationships, institutions, and societies (HP)

society, a large group of people associated with a shared culture and social institutions, it makes sense to explore how it influences your daily activities and decisions

 

Sociological Perspectivethe process of understanding and explaining how individuals and groups interact within society (HP).

Social Structuresthe distinctive and stable arrangements of social patterns that form the society as a whole (HP).

Social Problems: societal conditions that harm segments of society (HP).

Sociological Imaginationthe ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles (HP).

Social Changethe forces that change society’s organization and social structures (HP).

Sociological Perspectivethe process of understanding and explaining how individuals and groups interact within society (HP).

Social Structuresthe distinctive and stable arrangements of social patterns that form the society as a whole (HP).

Social Problems: societal conditions that harm segments of society (HP).

Sociological Imaginationthe ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles (HP).

Social Changethe forces that change society’s organization and social structures (HP).

Sociological Perspectivethe process of understanding and explaining how individuals and groups interact within society (HP).

Social Structuresthe distinctive and stable arrangements of social patterns that form the society as a whole (HP).

Social Problems: societal conditions that harm segments of society (HP).

Sociological Imaginationthe ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles (HP).

Social Changethe forces that change society’s organization and social structures (HP).

positivism – authentic and valid knowledge of the social world is found only through scientific and empirical pursuit. T

Comte believed that by using scientific methods to analyze society, sociologists could provide solutions to social problems, such as crime and poverty, that resulted from the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe.

sociological theorya set of interrelated ideas that provide a systematic understanding of the social world

The vineyard and village views represent macro sociology, a level of analysis focusing on social systems and populations on a large scale. The meadow is an example of micro sociologya level of analysis focusing on individuals and small groups within the larger social system

Marx wrote and thought during a time when there were predominantly two classes: the proletariatthe majority, who were the poor, property-less industrial working class, and the land and business owners referred to as the bourgeoisthe small minority who were the wealthy class 

conflict theorya sociological perspective emphasizing the role of political and economic power and oppression as contributing to the existing social order 

functionalist theory, a macro view of how the parts of society serve to maintain stability 

manifest functionsintentional and formally sanctioned functions of social institutions and society

Latent functionsunintentional and informally sanctioned functions of social institutions and society,

dysfunctionthe undesirable disruptions of social patterns resulting in negative consequences within society 

socialized self, which states that the self cannot develop apart from society

symbolic interactiona micro view of how society is the product of interactions between people, which occur via symbols that have distinct meanings

The conflict and functionalist theories are both at the macro level of analysis and do not include an emphasis on social interactions. Conflict theorists focus on exploitation in society, and functionalists are more concerned with the parts of society and how each functions

social facts — social patterns that are external to individuals and greatly influence our way of thinking and behaving in society

verstehen (vûrst e hen), an empathetic approach to understanding human behavior, loosely translated as understanding or interpretation

verstehen can be used to investigate macro issues, such as economics and religion.

feminist theorya view on anti-oppression, gender relations, and gender inequality,

applied sociologythe use of sociological theory, research, and methodologies to find solutions to problems in society

queer theorya critical view that rejects the traditional categories of gender, sex, and sexuality in contemporary society.

postmodern social theorya critical view rejecting the historical, scientific, and structured means of investigating and interpreting the social world

Social Structures-

social structuresthe distinctive and stable arrangements of social patterns that form the society as a whole 

rationalization of societythe replacement of traditional values and personal connections with bureaucracy, efficiency, and a means-end approach

bureaucracy — a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality

 red tape — adherence to excessive regulation and conformity that prevents decision-making and change

social problemsthe societal conditions that harm segments of society

Sociology can help you understand social problems by:

  • measuring objective conditions — the scope of a problem
  • measuring subjective concerns — people’s feelings about a problem (C-19

Fair Tradean organizational movement and certification process to help producers in developing countries receive a fair price for their products with the goals of reducing poverty, providing for the ethical treatment of workers and farmers, and promoting environmentally sustainable practices

sustainabilitythe idea that current and future generations should have equal or greater access to social, economic, and environmental resources

sustainable developmentdevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

social inequalitythe unequal distribution of power, property, or prestige in society

sociological imaginationthe ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles (C-19).

Personal troublesmatters experienced at the individual level,

public issue, a matter that impacts society as a whole.

anomiethe breakdown of social values, norms, and order resulting in social instability

 social changethe forces that change the organization and the social structures of society.

globalizationthe worldwide integration of our cultural, economic, and political lives that results from ever-increasing levels of business, trade, and technology

applied sociologythe use of sociological theory, research, and methodologies to find solutions to problems in society