Connecting Sociology and YOU!

Chapter 1: Introduction – Understanding Sociology

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Notes: in two-parent families were penalized in ways that their single-parent friends were not. While this rule was deemed unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of King v. Smith in 1968


Functionalist Theory: A theoretical perspective that is concerned with how the parts of the social system work to maintain stability in society. (Marco-Level)

In 1959, sociologist C. Wright Mills coined the term sociological imaginationthe ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles

of anomiethe breakdown of social values, norms, and order resulting in social instability

Anomie leaves people feeling uncertain, and uncertainty breeds fear and anxiety. 

The characteristics he examined included religion, family support systems, and whether the country was in war or peacetime. 

The pandemic disrupted approximately 75 percent of the global supply chain, creating a shortage of dozens of products, including new cars, lumber, swimming pool chlorine, blood, oxygen, pet food, and bicycles (Silver 2021). 

social changethe forces that change the organization and the social structures of society.

globalizationthe worldwide integration of our cultural, economic, and political lives that results from ever-increasing levels of business, trade, and technology

The use of sociology outside the academic setting to further understand the changing world around us is known as applied sociologythe use of sociological theory, research, and methodologies to find solutions to problems in society. 

social institutionsstructures in society providing the framework for governing the behavior of individuals in a community or society, such as family, education, religion, economy, and the government.

society, a large group of people associated with a shared culture and social institutions, it makes sense to explore how it influences your daily activities and decisions.

Auguste Comte (1798-1857), challenged this idea and stated that society could be studied using the same scientific methods in natural sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and biology. 

He established the term positivism – authentic and valid knowledge of the social world is found only through scientific and empirical pursuit.

He predicted that sociologists would be able to resolve all of the social ills of society and, as a result, be elevated to the highest positions in society. Ultimately, Comte thought that sociologists would rule the world due to their knowledge and expertise.

macro sociology, a level of analysis focusing on social systems and populations on a large scale.

The meadow is an example of micro sociologya level of analysis focusing on individuals and small groups within the larger social system

social facts — social patterns that are external to individuals and greatly influence our way of thinking and behaving in society

verstehen (vûrst e hen), an empathetic approach to understanding human behavior, loosely translated as understanding or interpretation

The feminist theorya view on anti-oppression, gender relations, and gender inequality, evolved from the conflict theory and is an important contemporary sociological perspective. 

queer theorya critical view that rejects the traditional categories of gender, sex, and sexuality in contemporary society.(Micro and Macro)

postmodern social theorya critical view rejecting the historical, scientific, and structured means of investigating and interpreting the social world

Harriet Martineau (1802-1876), an Englishwoman and the first female sociologist, visited the U.S.