Connecting Sociology and YOU!

Chapter 1: Introduction – Understanding Sociology

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Karl Marx (1818-1883) german, changed western europe from an agricultural society to an industrial society

proletariat – majority, who were the poor, property-less industrial working class

bourgeois – small minority who were the wealthy class

conflict theory – a sociological perspective emphasizing the role of political and economic power and oppression as contributing to the existing social order

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) french, conducting the first large-scale sociological study

functionalist theory – a macro view of how the parts of society serve to maintain stability 

manifest functions – intentional and formally sanctioned functions of social institutions and society

latent functions – unintentional and informally sanctioned functions of social institutions and society

dysfunction – undesirable disruptions of social patterns resulting in negative consequences within society

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) american

socialized self – the self cannot develop apart from society

symbolic interaction – a micro view of how society is the product of interactions between people, which occur via symbols that have distinct meanings

social facts –  social patterns that are external to individuals and greatly influence our way of thinking and behaving in society

questions to ask : what level of analysis do you want to explore  in regard to the working poor? Macro or micro? ; if macro, do you want to analyze the working poor using a conflict or functionalist view? if micro, then use the symbolic interaction view. ; based on your view, how does your topic relate to the view in the story — vineyard, village, or meadow?

verstehen – and empathetic approach to understanding human behavior (understanding or interpretation)

feminist theory –  a view on anti-oppression, gender relations, and gender inequality

applied sociology – use of sociological theory, research, and methodologies to find solutions to problems in society

queer theory – a critical view that rejects the traditional categories of gender, sex and sexuality in contemporary society

postmodern social theory – a critical view rejecting the historical, scientific, and structured means of investigating and interpreting the social world

realization of society – replacement of traditional values and personal connections with bureaucracy, efficiency and a means-end approach

ss : organizes behaviors of large groups of people; capable of coercing individuals and groups; provides norms, rules and practices; assigns roles and powers to individuals and groups; encompasses large geographical areas

bureaucracy – a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization , operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality 

red tape – adherence to excessive regulation and conformity that prevents decision-making and change 

objective conditions – scope of a problem

subjective concerns – people\\\\\\\’s feeling about a problem

sustainability – idea that current and future generations should have equal or greater access to social, economic, and environmental resources

sustainable development – development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

social inequality – unequal distribution of power, property, or prestige in society

anomie – breakdown of social values, norms, and order resulting in social instability